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  • Anticoagulant rodenticides
  • Acetaminophen (paracetamolol)
  • Pyrethrins and pyrethroids

Anticoagulant rodenticides

The first anticoagulant pesticide discovered resulted from investigations of cattle poisoned by consuming moldy sweet clover.  Mold converts coumarin in the clover to dicoumeral.  Warfarin is a synthetic agent first used as a pesticide in the 1940s.  In the 1960s it was discovered that warfarin at low doses its anticoagulant properties could be useful in […]

Acetaminophen (paracetamolol)

Veterinarians usually treat cats with acute toxicity when owners or other caregivers don’t realize how sensitive cats are to the drug. Clinical signs may be seen at exposures as low as 10 mg/kg, although published levels at which clinical signs are generally seen range from 50 to 100 mg/kg.  The adverse effects of repeated subclinical […]

Pyrethrins and pyrethroids

Pyrethrins were originally derived from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium.  There are 6 naturally occurring pyrethrins, but as they degrade in light, synthetic pyrethoids were created that have greater persistency and potency. Product formulations As a group the EPA in the US classifies pyrethroids as category II (moderate toxicity).   This toxicity profile and the fact that pyrethroids  can […]

Cyanide in plants

Several thousand plant species contain ~35 known cyanogenic glycosides, but most occur at low levels. The cassava plant (Manihot esculenta), lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus), sorghum  and flax are the best known foods containing significant levels of cyanogenic glycosides.  Heating is required to make them safe to eat. Cassava, also called manioc, yucca and tapioca, is […]

Black widow spiders

Widow spiders (Latrodectus sp.) are found through most of the world.  They are also known as hourglass or shoe button spiders.    There are 5 species in the US, with L. mactans the most common.  L. variolus is found in the Eastern US and north into the southern part of Canadian provinces along the US border.  […]